More than ten thousand years ago, the Queen Charlotte Islands were locked in ice, like the rest of Canada buried under the deep crust of a glacier. Ice-free patches of land persisted through the cold, probably harbouring life from an earlier warmer era. Refuges may have been large enough for a complex community of plants, insects, fish and small mammals.
The principles of pollination biology are based on a long history of observation and research by botanists, entomologists, and ecologists. One of the tools for looking at broad trends in plant-pollinator relationships is the the classification of plant reproductive structures into “pollination syndromes”. Flower form, including shape, dimension, number of parts, symmetry and colour patterns, can be generally associated with pollinators.